Monday, November 19, 2018

Life on Earth - Chapter 15 Class 11 NCERT Geography

1. Multiple choice questions. 

(i) Which one of the following is included in biosphere?
(a) only plants
(b) all living and  non-living organisms
(c) only animals  
(d) all living organisms

(ii) Tropical grasslands are also known as :
(a)    the prairies
(b) the savannas
(c) the steppes
(d) none of the above

(iii) Oxygen combines with iron found in the rocks to form :
(a)    iron carbonate
(b) iron nitrites
(c) iron oxides
(d) iron sulphate

(iv) During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide combines with water in the presence of sunlight to form : (a) proteins
(b) amino acids
(c) carbohydrates
(d) vitamins

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) What do you understand by the term ‘ecology’?
Ans. The term ecology is derived from the Greek word ‘oikos’ meaning ‘house’, combined with the word ‘logy’ meaning the ‘science of’ or ‘the study of’. Ecology is the study of the earth as a ‘household’, of plants, human beings, animals and micro-organisms.

(ii) What is an ecological system? Identify the major types of ecosystems in the world.
Ans. The interactions of a particular group of organisms with abiotic factors within a particular habitat resulting in clearly defined energy flows and material cycles on land, water and air, are called ecological systems.
The two major types of ecosystem are - terrestrial and aquatic

(iii) What is a food-chain? Give one example of a grazing food-chain identifying the various levels.
Ans. This sequence of eating and being eaten and the resultant transfer of energy from one level to another is known as the food-chain. For e.g. – Plants (producers) get eaten by rabbits, deer, cow etc...(herbivores animals), similarly herbivores animals get eaten by fox, lion, tiger, eagle etc...(carnivores animals).

(iv) What do you understand by the term ‘food web’? Give examples.
Ans. A food web is a natural interconnection of food chains. In other words, a network of food chains mixed together to form food web.

(v) What is a biome?
Ans. A biome is a plant and animal community that covers a large geographical area. This geographical area is usually determined by climate.

3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.

(i) What are bio-geochemical cycles? Explain how nitrogen is fixed in the atmosphere.
Ans. Bio-geochemical cycles are chemical exchange between living organisms that is where the term “bio” come from, and the “geographic” element of the earth such as - rocks, soil, air, and water. In simple terms, it is a cycle that shows the movement of chemical elements between the biotic (living organism) and the abiotic (non-living organism) components of the environment.
Nitrogen is a major constituent of the atmosphere comprising about 79% of the atmospheric gases. Nitrogen is considered as an unreactive gas. Nitrogen gas is formed when two nitrogen atoms bond together. Nitrogen molecules have a triple covalent bond and it requires a huge amount of energy to break triple bonds. Hence, this massive energy can be obtained by lightning and cosmic radiation.

(ii) What is an ecological balance? Discuss the important measures needed to prevent ecological imbalances.
Ans. Ecological balance is a state where there is equality between organisms and their environment in terms of coexistence.
Ecological imbalance occurs due to the introduction of new species, natural hazards or human causes.
Measures to prevent ecological imbalance:-
1. Manage Natural Resources Carefully
2. Controlling Population - reducing human consumption of natural resources
3. Protecting the Water
4. Recycling
5. Planting more trees
6. Improving farming techniques to avoid land degradation
7. Shifting from Fossil Fuels to Sustainable Energy

Friday, November 3, 2017

Importance of Learning History

By learning and understanding history, we get to understand the basic principles on which a society functions. History can give us information about many things such as:- what people ate, what kind of clothes people wore and what kind of houses they lived. By knowing these three basic questions, we can easily find out about the lives of hunters, herders, farmers, rulers, merchants, priests, crafts persons, artists, musicians, and scientists. This clearly tells us that we do not have one past. Past was different for different people. Some may have lived a life of a farmer or herder which is different from those who were kings or queens. Similarly, people who lived a life of a merchant were different from those who were craftsmen.
It is all true even today, people follow different practices and customs in different parts of the county. In some places, people get their own food by hunting, fishing and collecting from forest. Whereas, people living in cities get their food and other supplies by being dependent on others. This kind of a difference existed in past as well. Hence, this tells us that there is a clear connection between past and present.
History also unravels another kind of difference. In the past kings were known for their victories and battles they fought and we know about them through inscriptions, scriptures, poems, stories and other forms of records. But we do not see any record that tells anything about ordinary people’s interests and accolades. It is simply because they did not keep records for what they did. This kind of difference is seen today as well. Eminent people like scientists, authors, researchers, leaders write books, papers, patents etc as a form of record that showcases their work, ideas and thoughts. But rarely ordinary people keep any record of what they do.
There are many other things that were made and used in the past such as – buildings, sculptures, paintings. These all tells us about the architecture, town planning, interests, hobbies about people and society. Historians, who study the past they often make a direct and parallel relation between past and present. But there is much that remains unknown. However, by drawing a direct and parallel relation between past and present we can reconstruct the past bit by bit. That’s why the job of historians and archaeologists are like detectives, who use all these sources like clues to find out about our pasts.
As cliché as it may sound, sometimes the solution of a present problem can very much exist in the past. Only a careful interpretation and linkage of past and present can unravel the mystery behind many societal issues. Many of such societal issue are a direct result of our past.

Saturday, October 28, 2017

Notes of Ch 5 Minerals and Energy Resources| Class 10th Geography

1. Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which one of the following minerals is formed by decomposition of rocks, leaving a residual mass of weathered material?
(a) coal
(b) bauxite
(c) gold
(d) zinc
(ii) Koderma, in Jharkhand is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals?

Notes of Chapter 4 Agriculture| Class 10th Geography

Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area?
(a) Shifting Agriculture
(b) Plantation Agriculture
(c) Horticulture
(d) Intensive Agriculture
(ii) Which one of the following is a rabi crop?

NCERT Solutions for Class 10th: Ch 3 Water Resources Geography

1. Multiple choice quesitons.

(i) Based on the information given below classify each of the situations as ‘suffering from water scarcity’ or ‘not suffering from water scarcity’. 

(a) Region with high annual rainfall.
(b) Region having high annual rainfall and large population
(c) Region having high annual rainfall but water is highly polluted.
(d) Region having low rainfall and low population.

a. Not suffering from water scarcity
b. Not suffering from water scarcity
c. Suffering from water scarcity
d. Suffering from water scarcity

(ii) Which one of the following statements is not an argument in favour of multipurpose river projects?

Notes of Ch 7 Lifelines of National Economy| Class 10th Geography

1. Multiple choice questions.
(i) Which two of the following extreme locations are connected by the east-west corridor?
(a) Mumbai and Nagpur
(b) Silcher and Porbandar
(c) Mumbai and Kolkata
(d) Nagpur and Siligud
(ii) Which mode of transportation reduces trans-shipment losses and delays?

Friday, October 27, 2017

How Import and Export affect Economy

Image result for import export
We all are familiar with the terms imports and exports when it comes to international as well as domestic economy. In this article i will tell you how imports and exports affects the economy.
Imports are an important indicator and a vital component of the economyA high level of imports indicates robust domestic demand and a growing economy. Let’s take an example – today market has a growing demand for electronic gadgets, clothing, food, automobiles and other consumer goods. Many of them are foreign brands. It is because of imports they are accessible to us. When you purchase these goods, you are paying for these goods and that makes the economy grow. Therefore, a high level of imports indicates robust domestic demand and a growing economy. Now It’s even better if these imports are mainly of productive assets like machinery and equipment. These assets are used for long term productivity and productivity is necessary for an economy to grow.

How do human activities cause soil erosion?

how do human activities cause soil erosion
Before we answer “how do human activities cause soil erosion”, we need to first understand what is soil erosion.

What is Soil erosion?

Soil erosion is defined as the wearing away of topsoil. Soil is naturally created when small pieces of weathered rocks and minerals mix with organic materials from decaying plants and animals. It takes many years to create soil. However, the soil that is created faces constant pressure of natural and human activities.

How human activities can accelerate soil erosion?

Tuesday, April 4, 2017

Major Domains of the Earth - Chapter 5 Geography NCERT Class 6

1. Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) What are the four major domains of the earth?
Ans. The four major domains of the Earth are: lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.

(b) Name the major continents of the earth.

Maps - Chapter 4 Geography NCERT Class 6

1. Answer the following questions briefly.
(a) What are the three components of a map?
Ans. The three components of a map are - Distance, Direction & Symbol.

(b) What are the four cardinal directions?